“Musical Instruments in the Bible” Part 5 – Wind – [Ugab=Organ/Sumponia=Dulcimer]

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“Musical Instruments in the bible” Part 5 – Wind – [Ugab=Organ/Sumponia=Dulcimer]

[Study Aired October 26, 2023]

This week we will look at the last of the wind instruments, the Ugab, which is translated as ‘organ’, along with the Sumponia, which is translated as ‘dulcimer’.

Excerpt from https://www.biblestudy.org/bible-study-by-topic/musical-instruments.html:

Hebrew: Ugab
KJV Name: Organ
Strong’s: #H5748
References: Gen 4:21, Job 21:12, Job 30:31, Psa 150:4

The ugab is the second musical instrument mentioned in Scripture. It was created by Jubal who also made the first harp (Gen 4:16-21). The KJV translation of ugab is a bit misleading as it was not some kind of keyboard-based instrument. It was a flute-like wind instrument, possibly a double or manifold pipe, made of wood or ivory. It could be used to praise and rejoice before God (Psa 150:4) or while mourning (Job 30:31).

Hebrew: Sumponia
KJV Name: Dulcimer
Strong’s: #H5481
References: Dan 3:5, Dan 3:10, Dan 3:15

The KJV word “dulcimer,” found only in Daniel, is a mistranslation. Modern dulcimers are percussion based musical instruments that possess metal strings that are hit with lightweight hammers. Smith’s Bible Dictionary, the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE) and Wilmington’s Guide, however, all state the sumponia was possibly a type of bagpipe.

Tyndale’s Dictionary, however, argues the sumponia couldn’t have been a bagpipe, as musicologists believe no such instrument existed at the time of King Nebuchadnezzar. The uncertainty of the Hebrew makes it difficult to know what is being referenced.


The first use of the word ugabH5748 is found in Genesis 4:21, “And his brother’s name was JubalH3106: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ [ugabH5748].” Jubal means “stream”, and the root word means “to carry forth”, which is what a stream does. Jubal represents what God is going to do in time through all of His creation which will bring forth living waters (Joh 7:37-38). That great day of the feast (Joh 7:37) represents the time when all the world will be judged in the great white throne judgment and receive of the living waters that will break forth as a result of that judgment.

Joh 7:37  In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink.

Why is the “last day” called “that great day of the feast?” What is it that makes this day such a “great day?” What makes this day so very special is that this day is the ‘day’ in which all men of all the ages, all the aions of all the aions, will be raised up and purified and redeemed and brought to see themselves and repent and come to their Creator in love and worship. This is the final Jubilee!

Lev 25:10  And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a jubile unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family.

When is this ‘jubile’ proclaimed:

Lev 25:9  Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the jubile to sound on the tenth [day] of the seventh month, in the day of atonement shall ye make the trumpet sound throughout all your land. [End Quote]

Joh 7:37  In the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink.

Joh 7:38  He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.

That shadow of living waters coming forth as a result of judgment is played out over and over in God’s word (Gen 7:11, Num 20:11), and knowing what the resulting effect of that judgment will bring forth in our lives, we are told to rejoice in the midst of our trials for God is doing this great work in us that will bring forth a permanency in our mindset (1Pe 4:1-2) which will have us rejoicing in the Lord always, and again I say rejoice, all in God’s perfect time (Pro 23:15, Luk 1:46-47, Luk 19:40).

Gen 7:11  In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month, the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.

Num 20:11  And Moses lifted up his hand, and with his rod he smote the rock twice [Isa 53:5]: and the water came out abundantly, and the congregation drank, and their beasts also.

1Pe 4:1  Forasmuch then as Christ hath suffered for us in the flesh, arm yourselves likewise with the same mind: for he that hath suffered in the flesh hath ceased from sin;
1Pe 4:2  That he no longer should live the rest of his time in the flesh to the lusts of men, but to the will of God.

Pro 23:15  My son, if thine heart be wise, my heart shall rejoice, even mine. 

Luk 1:46  And Mary said, My soul doth magnify the Lord, 
Luk 1:47  And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. 

Luk 19:40  And he answered and said unto them, I tell you that, if these should hold their peace, the stones would immediately cry out.

The concept of ‘rejoicing always’ (Php 4:4-14) was not something that would have been foreign to Jubal who was the father of “all such as handle the harp and organ”. Like Jubal who typifies the elect that are the first to worship God in spirit and in truth [first living instruments in Christ], we are instructed in these verses of Philippians what must be accomplished in our lives if we are going to be able to continually offer up the sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving to our God [“Rejoice in the Lord alway: and again I say, Rejoice“], of which sacrifices He is well pleased (Heb 13:15, Psa 50:14).

Heb 13:15  By him therefore let us offer the sacrifice of praise to God continually,(Php 4:4) that is, the fruit of our lips giving thanks to his name.
Heb 13:16  But to do good and to communicate forget not: for with such sacrifices God is well pleased.

Gal 6:6  Let him that is taught in the word communicate unto him that teacheth in all good things.

Php 4:14  Notwithstanding ye have well done, that ye did communicate with my affliction.

1Ti 6:18  That they do good, that they be rich in good works, ready to distribute, willing to communicate;

Music, and the instruments with which we make music, symbolize the means by which we bring forth living waters unto God. We can communicate with God in spirit and in truth if we are in His holy hands and being worked with and accepted as His workmanship which is found in Christ (Eph 1:5-6). That imagery of working out our own salvation with fear and trembling, knowing it is God who is working in us both to will and to do of His good pleasure, is what the priests, who represent Christ blowing the shofar, typify for us (Php 2:12-13, Jos 6:13).

Eph 1:5  Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will,
Eph 1:6  To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved.

Php 2:12  Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work out your own salvation with fear and trembling.

Php 2:13  For it is God which worketh in you both to will and to do of his good pleasure. 

Jos 6:13  And seven priests bearing seven trumpetsH7782 of rams’ horns before the ark of the LORD went on continually, and blew with the trumpetsH7782: and the armed men went before them; but the rereward came after the ark of the LORD, the priests going on, and blowing with the trumpetsH7782.

Today’s study will focus on the organ and the dulcimer and the surrounding verses where these instruments are first mentioned, which always helps us get a better insight as to what their spiritual significance is for us today.

Php 4:4  Rejoice in the Lord alway: and again I say, Rejoice. 
Php 4:5  Let your moderation be known unto all men. The Lord is at hand. 
Php 4:6  Be careful for nothing; but in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God.
Php 4:7  And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.
Php 4:8  Finally, brethren, whatsoever things are true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever things are pure, whatsoever things are lovely, whatsoever things are of good report; if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things.

[Notice that ‘thinking on these things’ is in large part what “ye have both learned, and received, and heard, and seen in me, do” and precedes our being equipped to communicate with the affliction of those who are suffering in the body of Christ (Php 4:14)]

Php 4:9  Those things, which ye have both learned, and received, and heard, and seen in me, do: and the God of peace shall be with you.
Php 4:10  But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at the last your care of me hath flourished again; wherein ye were also careful, but ye lacked opportunity. 
Php 4:11  Not that I speak in respect of want: for I have learned, in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content.
Php 4:12  I know both how to be abased, and I know how to abound: every where and in all things I am instructed both to be full and to be hungry, both to abound and to suffer need. 
Php 4:13  I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me. 
Php 4:14  Notwithstanding ye have well done, that ye did communicate with my affliction.

When we communicate in the body of Christ, it must be done decently and in order (1Co 14:40). Order is synonymous with harmony, and without our obedience to God’s commands we lose that order and the beauty of holiness (2Ch 20:21, 1Jn 5:2-3) that God gives us when we abase ourselves and take our lead from Christ who directs his body and provides us with a multitude of counselors so we can find safety in Him (Pro 11:14, Pro 15:22, Pro 24:6). Being led by the spirit of God will always bring about liberty (Rom 8:14-16, 2Co 3:17), and we can have no greater liberty or joy in this life than when we all are speaking the same thing as we walk in the truth (Php 2:2-4). This proper communication all comes back to our opening verse in Genesis 4:21 where we see the first mention of instruments from a man whose name [JubalH3106] points to the only way we can have harmony in the body of Christ, by having the same mind of Christ, with the same spirit of God within us that makes the many members one body (1Co 10:17). 

2Ch 20:21  And when he had consulted with the people, he appointed singers unto the LORD, and that should praise the beauty of holiness, as they went out before the army, and to say, Praise the LORD; for his mercy endureth for ever.

1Co 10:17  For we being many are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one bread.


From H2986; stream; Jubal, an antediluvian: – Jubal.

Total KJV occurrences: 1

A primitive root; properly to flow; causatively to bring (especially with pomp): – bring (forth), carry, lead (forth).

Total KJV occurrences: 18

Gen 4:19  And Lamech (Adam->Cain->Enoch->Irad->Mehuiael->Lamech – vs 17-18) took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. 
Gen 4:20  And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle. 
Gen 4:21  And his brother’s name was JubalH3106: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organH5748.
Gen 4:22  And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.
Gen 4:23  And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt.

The organH5748 spoken of in Genesis 4:21 is a wind instrument, and the context that we find this instrument being used in Genesis 4:21-26, Job 21:12-34, and Job 30:31 is connected to death as we are reminded of how all we do in this life is vanity because it is passing away (1Pe 1:24, Jas 4:14) and leading to our going to the grave (Ecc 1:2). Now that would be the most depressing message someone could bring to you, if our hope was only in Christ is this life, but add Psalm 150:6, and it becomes very clear that there is a negative and positive use of the word “breath”, and in particular with the word organH5748, where we are given hope in what God has promised He will accomplish with the breath of His mouth. 

1Pe 1:23  Being born again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, which liveth and abideth for ever. 
1Pe 1:24  For all flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower of grass. The grass withereth, and the flower thereof falleth away:

Jas 4:14  Whereas ye know not what shall be on the morrow. For what is your life? It is even a vapour, that appeareth for a little time, and then vanisheth away. 

Ecc 1:2  Vanity of vanities, saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities; all is vanity.

The  breath of life God breathed into Adam (Gen 2:7) typifies those instruments that only point to the physical death and mourning which is accompanied with this vain flesh in which we live, whereas the spirit of God that was given on Pentecost points to the life of Christ given to the second Adam so that the real breath of life can be experienced, which happens with God’s spirit dwelling within us (Joh 20:22, Joh 6:53-57, Col 1:27, Rom 8:9).

Gen 2:7  And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathedH5301 into his nostrils the breathH5397 of life; and man became a living soulH5315.

Joh 20:22  And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost:

Joh 6:57  As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father: so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me.

Col 1:27  To whom God would make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles; which is Christ in you, the hope of glory: 

Rom 8:9  But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his. 

(…continuing with Genesis 4)

Gen 4:24  If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.
Gen 4:25  And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.
Gen 4:26  And to SethH8352, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos: then began men to call upon the name of the LORD.

SethH8352 (compensation, substitute) is the third son of Adam, and we know that the number ‘3’ represents the process of judgment we must go through to go on to perfection on the third day (Luk 13:32). No man can enter into the temple “till the seven plagues of the seven angels were fulfilled” (Rev 15:8). Until that process of judgment is finished, our relationship in that temple is in earnest (downpayment), seeing through a glass darkly and not yet seeing Him face to face, therefore after the third son of Adam is born, the symbolic words “then began men to call upon the name of the LORD” is introduced, meaning that it is after the process of judgment, through which we all must go, that we will finally be able to go into the temple of God in the fullness, or go on to perfection as Christ said on the third day, speaking of the first resurrection for God’s elect, who are as Christ being judged and losing our Adamic life for the new life of Christ within us “even he shall live by me.

Joh 6:53  Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you.
Joh 6:54  Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day.
Joh 6:55  For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed.
Joh 6:56  He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him.
Joh 6:57  As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father: so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me.

Job 21:12  They take the timbrel and harp, and rejoice at the sound of the organH5748.
Job 21:13  They spend their days in wealth, and in a moment go down to the grave.
Job 21:14  Therefore they say unto God, Depart from us; for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways.
Job 21:15  What is the Almighty, that we should serve him? and what profit should we have, if we pray unto him? 
Job 21:16  Lo, their good is not in their hand: the counsel of the wicked is far from me.
Job 21:17  How oft is the candle of the wicked put out! and how oft cometh their destruction upon them! God distributeth sorrows in his anger.
Job 21:18  They are as stubble before the wind, and as chaff that the storm carrieth away.
Job 21:19  God layeth up his iniquity for his children: he rewardeth him, and he shall know it.
Job 21:20  His eyes shall see his destruction, and he shall drink of the wrath of the Almighty.
Job 21:21  For what pleasure hath he in his house after him, when the number of his months is cut off in the midst?
Job 21:22  Shall any teach God knowledge? seeing he judgeth those that are high.
Job 21:23  One dieth in his full strength, being wholly at ease and quiet. 
Job 21:24  His breasts are full of milk, and his bones are moistened with marrow. 
Job 21:25  And another dieth in the bitterness of his soul, and never eateth with pleasure.
Job 21:26  They shall lie down alike in the dust, and the worms shall cover them.
Job 21:27  Behold, I know your thoughts, and the devices which ye wrongfully imagine against me.
Job 21:28  For ye say, Where is the house of the prince? and where are the dwelling places of the wicked? 
Job 21:29  Have ye not asked them that go by the way? and do ye not know their tokens,
Job 21:30  That the wicked is reserved to the day of destruction? they shall be brought forth to the day of wrath. 
Job 21:31  Who shall declare his way to his face? and who shall repay him what he hath done? 
Job 21:32  Yet shall he be brought to the grave, and shall remain in the tomb.
Job 21:33  The clods of the valley shall be sweet unto him, and every man shall draw after him, as there are innumerable before him [Rev 7:9].
Job 21:34  How then comfort ye me in vain, seeing in your answers there remaineth falsehood?

Job 30:31  My harp also is turned to mourning, and my organH5748 into the voice of them that weep.


Excerpt from Job 21:18-34 “The Wicked is Reserved to the Day of Destruction” by Mike Vinson

When we come to know Christ and His Father we learn that His “marred… vessel… made of clay” was “made of clay” for the purpose of disposing of that old vessel, and that He had determined before He ever formed that “marred vessel” that he would destroy it and through the agency of that destruction, make a new vessel that really will be “conformed to the image of His Son”.

Job is one of the earliest revelations of this Truth. To Job it was obvious that the wicked are not being judged in this life. What he did not yet understand is that his experience would, as Peter tells us, “minister not unto [him]self, but unto us.” Nevertheless Job was granted to understand “That the wicked are reserved to the day of destruction; they shall be brought forth to the day of wrath.”


Excerpt from Job 30:16-31 “For I Know That Thou Wilt Bring Me to Death” by Mike Vinson.

Job tells us, “My harp also is turned to mourning, and my organ into the voice of them that weep.” Here is what we are told of the fate of Babylon within us, with all the music and mirth that, until the hour of her judgment, was to be found in her.

Rev 18:21 And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.
Rev 18:22 And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;

To our doomed old man, this all sounds so ‘apocalyptic’, and indeed, for him it is apocalyptic. However, for the new man, this is nothing less than the good news of the kingdom of God which is within us, and it is the beginning of “life more abundantly.”

Luk 17:20 And when he was demanded of the Pharisees, when the kingdom of God should come, he answered them and said, The kingdom of God cometh not with observation:
Luk 17:21 Neither shall they say, Lo here! or, lo there! for, behold, the kingdom of God is within you.

Joh 10:10 The thief [the beast, the man of sin, empowered by the dragon] cometh not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly.

So then what is death to our ‘old man’ is actually life to our ‘new man’.

Joh 3:36 He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him.

———  End Quote ———

The last verse we will look at regarding the organ is found in Psalm 150:4-6, and the surrounding verses draw our attention to a very hope-filled conclusion to this second last of the wind instruments we’ll be looking at.

Psa 150:4  Praise him with the timbrel and dance: praise him with stringed instruments and organsH5748.
Psa 150:5  Praise him upon the loud cymbals: praise him upon the high sounding cymbals.
Psa 150:6  Let every thing that hath breath praise the LORD. Praise ye the LORD.

As mentioned above, this is the positive use of “organ”, and the collective sound of all these instruments, wind or not, are said to be part of everything that hath breath that praises the LORD. In this we see that ‘breath’ is also synonymous with how the spirit moves us, how we are led by the spirit (Rom 8:14-16), and not just synonymous with the actual ‘wind’ that typifies the spirit of God that many wind instruments we’ve looked at require to make their sound. The verse that comes to mind is Psalm 133:1-3. The whole family of God makes up many parts of this spiritual orchestra: cymbals, timbrels, dance, stringed instruments, all make up the “everything” that “hath breath praise the LORD. Praise ye the LORD.” 

Psa 133:1  A Song of degrees of David. Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity!
Psa 133:2  It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron’s beard: that went down to the skirts of his garments; 
Psa 133:3  As the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion: for there the LORD commanded the blessing, even life for evermore. 

The last wind instrument we will look at is the sumponia, or dulcimer.


The KJV word “dulcimer,” found only in Daniel, is a mistranslation. Modern dulcimers are percussion-based musical instruments that possess metal strings which are hit with lightweight hammers. Smith’s Bible Dictionary, the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (ISBE) and Wilmington’s Guide, however, all state the sumponia was possibly a type of bagpipe.

Tyndale’s Dictionary, however, argues the sumponia couldn’t have been a bagpipe, as musicologists believe no such instrument existed at the time of King Nebuchadnezzar. The uncertainty of the Hebrew makes it difficult to know what is being referenced.


The context in which we find the dulcimerH5481 being used in God’s word is not a positive one, but rather connected to idolatry and the worship of self, as opposed to worship of the Creator rather than the creation (Rom 1:25). In a previous study found at this link, [Musical Instruments in the bible – Part 4], there is a lot of detail brought out as to what the relationship to the idolatrous event Nebuchadnezzar conducted represents.

Musical Instruments in the bible – Part 4 excerpt:

As mentioned, Nebuchadnezzar is a type of Satan, and like Satan he is not content in this society to just set up the idols of his heart to present to the unsuspecting deceived masses, but also commands everyone, to “fall down and worship the golden image that Nebuchadnezzar the king hath set up”, and if not “be cast into the midst of a burning fiery furnace.”  This fiery furnace typifies the fiery trials of the elect’s faith (1Pe 4:12, 1Pe 1:7) which is to be hated and rejected by all the world for coming out of Babylon and touching not the unclean thing, as we are accepted of our Father through Christ (Heb 12:6-7). It is through a process of judgment [Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego], of fiery trials and of much tribulation that this self-righteous spirit which naturally abides within us will be ruled over and eventually destroyed, going on to perfection on the third day, Lord willing (Eph 1:6-7, Luk 13:32).

———-  End Quote   ———-

The three places where the dulcimer is mentioned in these verses are connected with fiery judgment.

Isa 30:27  Behold, the name of the LORD cometh from far, burning with his anger, and the burden thereof is heavy: his lips are full of indignation, and his tongue as a devouring fire: 
Isa 30:28  And his breath, as an overflowing stream, shall reach to the midst of the neck, to sift the nations with the sieve of vanity: and there shall be a bridle in the jaws of the people, causing them to err. 
Isa 30:29  Ye shall have a song, [all men shall be saved (1Co 15:22)] as in the night when a holy solemnity is kept; and gladness of heart, as when one goeth with a pipe to come into the mountain of the LORD, to the mighty One of Israel. 
Isa 30:30  And the LORD shall cause his glorious voice to be heard, and shall shew the lighting down of his arm, with the indignation of his anger, and with the flame of a devouring fire, with scattering, and tempest, and hailstones.

Next week, Lord willing, we will begin to study the percussion instruments mentioned in the bible: the Menana, the Meziltayim, the Paamon, the Toth, and the Tselatsal.


Excerpt from https://www.biblestudy.org/bible-study-by-topic/musical-instruments.html:


Hebrew: Menana

KJV Name: Cornets (Sistrum)

Strong’s: #H4517 

References: 2Sa 6:5

The Hebrew menana is erroneously translated as “cornets” in the King James Version of 2 Samuel 6:5. The word means “to rattle”, and likely designates an instrument known as a sistrum.

Sistrums had rings or disks loosely attached to one or more bars fixed across a frame. The frame was constructed out of carved bronze or copper. The Sistrum was played by holding it upright and shaking it, allowing its rings to move back and forth on its bars. The menana was played when King David attempted to escort the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem.

Hebrew: Meziltayim

KJV Name: Cymbals

Strong’s: #H4700

References: 1Ch 13:8, 1Ch 15:16, 19, 28, 1Ch 16:5, 42, 1Ch 25:1, 6, 2Ch 5:12-13, 1Ch 29:25, Ezr 3:10, Neh 12:27

The Hebrew word meziltayim means “double tinklers.” This instrument, made of brass, was utilized by the leaders of the Levitical singers and played a prominent role in religious ceremonies.

Hebrew: Paamon

KJV Name: Bell

Strong’s: #H6472

References: Exo 28:33, 34, Exo 39:25, 36

Tiny bells and pomegranates were attached to the lower hem of the High Priest’s ephod. Although not loud, the bells signaled his location in the temple’s sanctuary.

Hebrew: Toph

KJV Name: Timbrel / Tabret

Strong’s: #H8596

References: Gen 31:27, Exo 15:20, Jdg 11:34, 1Sa 10:5, 1Sa 18:6, 2Sa 6:5, 1Ch 13:8, Job 21:12, etc.

The Hebrew word toph is translated ten times as “timbrel” and eight times as “tabret.” The toph, the oldest and most popular means of percussion, was a musical instrument of the drum kind. The 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, in its section on the timbrel and tabret, states the following:

“It is very simple, consisting of a broad or narrow hoop of wood or metal over which the skin of an animal is stretched. Sometimes small, thin pieces of metal are hung upon the rim, which jingle when the timbrel is shaken, as in the modern tambourine.

The instrument is held high in one hand, while the performer beats on the drumhead with the fingers and the back of the other hand.”

Hebrew: Tselatsal (possibly Zelzelim)

KJV Name: Cymbals

Strong’s: #H6767

References: 2Sa_6:5, Psa_150:5

Tselatsals produced a loud clanging sound. This musical instrument was played when King David attempted to escort the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem.

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